God, Soul, and World Al-Ghazali on Islamic Consciousness


 

God, Soul, and World Al-Ghazali on Islamic Consciousness

الله والروح والعالم الغزالي والوعي الإسلامي

Dr. Rawaa Mahmoud Hussain USA   د. رواء محمود حسين ـ الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية  

مقال منشور في  مجلة جيل الدراسات الادبية والفكرية العدد 64 الصفحة 113.

    ملخص:

يعد الغزالي من أبرز علماء الإسلام عبر التاريخ. شكلت كتبه ودراساته في مختلف مجالات العلوم الإسلامية المصدر الأساسي لكثير من علماء المسلمين بعده. عمل الغزالي في العديد من الميادين الإسلامية من التفسير والحديث والفقه وأصول الفقه والتصوف والفلسفة والمنطق وغيرها. في هذه البحث، أدرس مفهوم المعرفة عند الغزالي وعلاقته بالله والإنسان. التجربة التي أعدها ليست معرفة مطلقة أو نظرية بحتة، بل فهماً ذا بعد ديني وإنساني في نفس الوقت.

الكلمات المفاتيح: الغزالي ـ المعرفة ـ الله ـ العالم ـ الإنسان  

Abstract:

Al-Ghazali is one of the most prominent Islamic scholars throughout history. His books and studies in various fields of Islamic sciences formed the primary source for many Muslim scholars after him. Al-Ghazali worked in many Islamic fields of interpretation, hadith, jurisprudence, the principles of jurisprudence, mysticism, philosophy, logic, and others. In this paper, I study the concept of knowledge of al-Ghazali and its relationship to God and man. The experience I consider in this research is not absolute knowledge or pure theory, but rather an understanding with a religious and human dimension at the same time.

 

Keywords:

Al-Ghazali, Knowledge, God, World, Human.

Introduction:

Islam established knowledge on at-Tawhid, the solidarity of God. It rehashed in the sacred Qur’an as the key convention of Islam. At-Tawhid or Islamic monotheism communicated in an equation called al-Shahadah. “There is no God except Allah.” It implies that there is no God yet one supreme God, the Lord, and Created of the universe. Islam puts supreme accentuation on the solidarity of God, and everything else settles round this interesting focus and gets from it. It starts with God and finishes in Him.[1]

A man, according to Al-Ghazali, will open the entryway to the information on God when he knows his very own spirit. And then, when he comprehends reality with regards to his very own soul. Information on the spirit prompts the information on God. The information is to comprehend what we are, how God created us, whence we are. It is also for what we are here, whether we are going, in what our bliss comprises, and what we should do to verify it. Knowledge in Islam, according to Al-Ghazali, is in what our hopelessness comprises. It is also we should do to maintain a strategic distance from it. Also, further, our essential characteristics are appropriated into creature, savage, demoniacal, and heavenly characteristics. We have to know, in this manner, what characteristics prevail in our character. We also need to know the prevalence of which our actual satisfaction comprises. [2]

As Al-Ghazali indicated, a man was to remain at the entryway of administration in slightness and shortcoming. And hang tight for the opening of the entryway of otherworldly association, and the vision of excellence. Many characteristics, regardless of whether creature or brutal or demoniacal that a man has. They are by their methods; the body may be adjusted to be a vehicle for the soul. The soul, by methods for the body, which is its vehicle. The brief home of the earth may look for after the information and love of God, as the huntsman would try to make the phoenix and the griffin his prey. At that point, when it leaves this strange land for the area of otherworldly fellowship, it will be qualified to participate in the riddle contained in the greeting, “enter in harmony, O devotees!” [3]

On the knowledge of God:

Al-Ghazali accepts that the proof for the greatness of information in the Qur’an [is manifest] in the expressions of Allah: “Allah gives testimony there is no Allah however He, and the holy messengers, and men endued with information, set up in righteousness.” (3:16) See, at that point, how Allah has referenced Himself first, the heavenly attendants second, and men invested with information third. In this, you truly have respect, greatness, qualification, and rank. What’s more, again, Allah stated: “Allah will bring up in rank those of you who accept just like the individuals who are given information.” (58:12). It was conceivable just through the intensity of information. Allah likewise stated: Yet they to whom information hath been given stated, ‘Hardship to you! The prize of Allah is better [for him who accepts and does right],” (28:80), indicating in this manner that the incredible significance of the great beyond is refreshing through information. As indicated by ibn-’Abbas, the scholarly men rank 700 evaluations over the devotees, between every two of which is a separation 500 years in length. Said, Allah. “State, ‘will the individuals who know be regarded as equivalent to the individuals who don’t?” (39:12) Allah additionally stated, “None dread Allah however the insightful among His hirelings; (35:25) and once more, “State, ‘Allah is observer enough in between you and me, and whoever hath the information on The Book!’” (13:43). [4]

The work starts with a calling of confidence. The abundance of this world, similar to life itself, is of constrained length and misfortune all worth when we kick the bucket. The main unlimited riches, the main belonging that has everlasting worth, is the confidence that God has given the sovereign. The incredible scholar contrasts the confidence with a tree with fundamentals and ten branches. The roots, which speaks to the standards of confidence will empower him to present the traits of God: virtue, time everlasting, omniscience, power, vision, will, hearing, discourse and activity, from which he attracts certain passing exercises of modesty proposed for the sovereign. The second piece of confidence is the meaning of prescience, nubuwwa. Man can’t act naturally know the convictions, demonstrations, and states that will prompt satisfaction in the following scene. God has made edges, which are sent by him to those He has decided for unceasing joy, the prophets, of whom Muhammad was the last. [5]

Its particular ascribe is to know God and to appreciate the vision of the magnificence of the Lord God. In any case, when we talk about heart, we don’t mean the bit of tissue, which is in the left half of the bosom of a man. For that is found in a dead body and creatures: it might be seen with the eyes and has a place with a noticeable world. God made a man of two things: the one is a public body, and the other is something inward, that is called soul and heart, which must be seen by the brain. Heart, which is determinedly called soul, doesn’t have a place with this world. It has resulted in these present circumstances world; it has just come to leave it. The body is like a vehicle, and all the outside and inward organs of the body are its subjects. [6]

It has been said that in the accompanying expressions of Allah, “O Sons of Adam! We have sent down to you clothing wherewith to cover your bareness, and amazing pieces of clothing; yet the attire of devotion this is ideal,” (7:25) the garments speak to information, the mind-blowing articles of clothing, truth, and the garment of devotion, humility. Allah likewise stated,” And We have presented to them a book: with information have We clarified it;” (7:50). And once more, “Yet it is clear sign in the hearts of those whom the information hath came to;” (29:48) and, “With information will We let them know;” (7:6) and once more, “[He] hath made man, [and] hath trained him articulate discourse.” (55:2-3). Furthermore, again, Allah stated, “These illustrations do we set out for men: and none comprehends them to spare the individuals who know.” (29:42) Allah likewise stated, “Yet if they somehow happened to allude it to the Apostle and those in power among them, those of them who might inspire the data would know it” (4:85). He hence made the information on His will subordinate upon their endeavors to discover it out and set them by the prophets in the [ability] to make it known.[7]

Crafted by God are caught by the faculties, which are five, hearing, taste, sight, smell, and contact. For such a course of action of the faculties, there was likewise need of a body. The body itself is out of four various components, water, earth, air, and fire. It is in the persistent risk of dying from the outside and inward adversaries that interminably attack it. Its outer adversaries are, for example, wild monsters, suffocating, and blazes; its inward foes, for example, yearning and thirst. For eating and drinking, it needs inward and outer instruments like the hand, the mouth, the stomach, the forces of hunger, and processing. To oppose these, it needed different inside and outside powers, for example, the hand and foot, sight and hearing, nourishment, and drink. There additionally was need of intends to direct in their intermittent use, that is, for the inside faculties. These are five, the resources of recognition, reflection, memory, memory, and creative mind. Their house is in mind, and every ha a particular capacity, as is notable to the educated. All these are the operators of the heart and subject to its standard. If, for instance, the heart gives. [8]

On the Knowledge of the Soul:

It is not easy to acquire information on the heart until we know its embodiment and its actual nature, its resources, and its relations with its resources.  Nor until we know its characteristics, and how through them the information on God is gotten, and what satisfaction is, and how bliss is to be verified. We should know at that point that the presence of the soul is obvious and isn’t associated with the question. It isn’t a body, which someone can find in carcasses and creatures for the most part. At death, the body goes to earth, however the soul experiences no defilement. Still, it isn’t allowed to us to comprehend what the soul is in its genuine nature and its essence. God says in his Holy Word: “They will get some information about the soul. The answer, the soul, is a creation by the declaration of the Lord.” The soul has a place with the universe of pronouncements. A person with his eyes all the way open should view the world and upon his very own body. And afterward shut his eyes, everything would be hidden from his view so that he couldn’t see even his own body. However, the presence of his soul would not be simultaneously closed out from his perspective. [9]

Since its commencement, Islam has been the source or conductor for some social, creative, logical, and innovative advances. The most outstanding blossoming of Islamic culture occurred from the eleventh through the thirteenth hundreds of years, where Muslim researchers added to fields. For example, stargazing, topography, medication, and optics, just as pseudo-sciences, for instance, speculative chemistry and crystal gazing (even though these last practices were dismissed by the all the more observing Islamic researchers). Islamic researchers were instrumental in transmitting lost old style, especially Hellenistic, philosophical, and scholarly attempts to Europe. It was mainly using Islamic Spain and, to a lesser degree, Islamic Sicily. Most broadly, Islam presented Arabic numbers (counting zero) toward the West. [10]

The Islamic method of the wellsprings of information contrasts from the vision of worldly disbelievers. It makes presence their only source and can’t imagine a strategy of information except that by which the substances of the physical universe got known. It additionally varies from the different strict supernatural originations. The celestial disclosure is consistently a definitive source of information, yet it was never the sole. Muslim scholars from the past reliably attempted to get specific details on how to infer the guidelines and ideas of the Qur’an. They built up these just based on sound judgment rather than a binding together approach. The significant distinction between Islamic is that the last set up proofs from the detectable universe for its case that there is a second wellspring of information, for example, disclosure. While the realists deny this reality, which is demonstrated by the source of information they recognize, which places them in inconsistency. The defenders of different strict magical beginnings put stock in hotspots for which they have no hint of verification for their credibility.[11]

All presence is of two sorts, one is of the universe of announcements, and the other is of the universe of creation. The issues which have a place with the universe of announcements are those who have not superficies, amount, or structure: to the universe of creation have a place those who do have both amount and structure. The creation discussed in the refrain is in the feeling of foreordination and not of positive development. The individuals who state that the soul is nevertheless a mishap, are in blunder, for the soul exists without anyone else in the body, and a mishap is what subsists with something different. What’s more, the individuals who state that the soul is matter are in blunder, for the issue is what can scholar partition it, and the soul isn’t vulnerable to division. Likewise, the individuals who state that the soul is made, and is additionally from all endlessness are in blunder, in vain is interminable aside from the being and characteristics of God.[12]

It is God who generous instructs the understudy what soul is. That which is important to the understudy is devout vigor and enthusiasm, and this must be into practice in flawlessness. There is soul, dearest, which is called creature soul, which is powerless of division. It is in creatures. In any case, that soul, which has the property of knowing God, and which is known as the heart, isn’t found in monsters, nor is it matter or a mishap. The heart has made with heavenly characteristics. It is a substance of which it is hard to capture the quintessence. The law doesn’t allow it to be clarified, yet there is no event for the understudy being familiar with it at the beginning of his voyage.[13]

The satisfaction of the heart comprises the information and love of God. The heart which doesn’t feel a need for the information and love of God, and where the adoration for different items rules, is a heart that is wiped out and prepared to die, except if its expressions of love begotten some distance from different things, and the affection for God become overwhelming. The heart that doesn’t feel the need of the information on God, and a yearning for hell’s sake, but instead aches for after and looks for the world, takes after a debilitated individual who has no craving for nourishment. Yet even inclines toward such things as earth and mud to meat, viewing them as essential, not-withstanding they have no supporting characteristics. On the off chance that to recoup his craving for nourishment, and on the off chance that he keeps enjoying irrational thoughts of what is essential, his disease will develop in quality; until if he proceeds in this state, he will die and lose the delights this world can give. Ultimate ecstasy will be lost, and eternal wretchedness will be its bit. Our asylum is in God! [14]

An individual who doesn’t comprehend his own body, substance, but then professes to the information on God, looks like the bankrupt. Even though he has nothing to eat himself, he ought to yet design a blowout for all the poor of the city. The body is nevertheless a creature to be ridden by the heart, which is its rider, while the heart’s central end is to get information on God. The nobility of anything relies on what it is in itself. Just in a similar way as when you see a wonderful example of calligraphy or some exquisite stanzas. You acclaim the individual who made them, you feel adoration for him in your heart and want energetically to see him. To put it plainly, a man should make each conceivable effort to pick up the information on God, because the information on God requires the adoration for God. [15]

After that, by divine activity and sovereign power, generally weird and superb inward changes occurred, and solid organs, interests, expressions of love, and pleasing characteristics ascended all enhanced with excellence. At the point, a man comes to view his organs and individuals, regardless of whether upon the outside, like the hand, the foot, the eye, the tongue, and the mouth, or upon the inside organs, as the liver, the stomach, and the spleen. He sees that each is the consequence of exceptional intelligence, that everyone has been made for some impossible to miss. And that everyone is in its place and great. A man from his reality knows the presence of a Creator; from his traits. He knows the qualities of his producer; from the control which he has over his very own realm, he knows the control that God practices over all the world. A man sees himself, starting when there was no follow or thought of his reality, and thinks about his creation with consideration. He sees that he had his birthplace from a drop of water. He had neither personality nor understanding: and neither one of the fats, substance, nor bones. [16]

For similarly, as from your very own study being and characteristics you have in a contracted structure taken in the being and traits of God. It is likewise conceivable to see how the opportunity and the sacredness of God look to some extent, as the opportunity of your spirit. A man knows the presence of his maker, that from his examination of the materials of which that shape his body and out of its particular characters. He comprehends the all-powerful intensity of God, that from the utilizations, the course of action, and the mix of his organs, he knows the omniscient insight of God, and that his leniency and empathy reach out to all. He knows, likewise, that these numerous benevolent actions and bounties are offered to him without his chasing or care, from God’s rich and flooding elegance.[17]

 

On the Knowledge of the World:

This world is one phase of our life forever. For the individuals who are venturing correctly, it is the street of religion. It is a market opened in the wild, where the individuals who are going on their approach to God, may gather and get ready arrangements for their voyage. And withdraw thereupon to God, without distress or sadness. the world comprises of a specific number of stages between the universe of spirits and the future world. The principal organizes the support, and the latter is the grave, and each period between these is additionally a phase. Every month speaks to a group, every hour a mile, and every breath a stage. It is continually streaming on like running water. Man in his over the top indiscretion believing himself to be for all time built up. He takes part in working up the world: and however, he has no affirmation of a half-hour of time, he gets ready for abiding here for a long time, and not even once forces himself to do the important groundwork for dislodging and moving to another land. [18]

It looks like the man who ought to eat to a great extent of rich and fragile nourishment and discover incredible pleasure in the joys of the world. However, he experiences acid reflux; his stomach is disturbed, heaving and infection follow. Therefore, he has a lot to suffer before he can recoup his wellbeing. Man, in this world takes after the visitor who was welcome to participate in the accommodation of a rich man. In token of regard, the workers set before him silver washing-bowls, vessels of expensive stones, fragrances of musk, and golden with scraping dishes. Try not to assume, darling, that everything on to detest the planet. There are a few things that are respectable and significant, which have a place with the world: viz : information, venerate, war with regards to the confidence, and forbearance : and furthermore an adequacy of nourishment, drink and dress, marriage, residential safe house and different things; seeing that they are encouraged on the adventure to the future world and in the way of information, they are every one of them exceedingly significant and fundamental. [19]

In his Tahafut al-Falasifa (Eng. The Incoherence of the Philosophers), al-Ghazali contends on legitimate and experimental grounds. He supposed a fundamental association between what we constantly view as the common productive reason and its impact that we can’t demonstrate. He doesn’t, in any case, take a rationalist to remain on this inquiry. Yet, he continues to assert two points: that there is no causal organization in regular things; (2) that every single characteristic occasion is the immediate formation of God. Al-Ghazali subsequently denies fundamental activity inside and out. He offers articulation to the Islamic school of prejudiced philosophy (kalām) to which he had a place, the Ashcarite school. Al-Ghazali had an unmistakable fascination likewise for rationale. He composed original treatises for his kindred scholars, urging them to ace this artistry as an instrument to establish their doctrinal rivals. The treatises, in the fundamental, summarize and clarify the rationale utilized by the Islamic savants – a rationale that mirrors the Stoic and Aristotelian customs. Al-Ghazali perceives formal rationale to be insightfully impartial, and thus not the slightest bit clashing with his religious philosophy.” He doesn’t restrict himself to formal rationale in these compositions; nonetheless, however, examines the Aristotelian exhibition. What’s more, it is in his announcements on an exhibition that we appear to be stood up to with Catch 22. Expressive science, as comprehended by the Islamic savants, lays on the hypothesis of basic causes and capacities as far as it. Al-Ghazali, also, doesn’t restrict such heavenly activity to the domain of the lifeless and the nonsensical. In his al-Iqtiṣād fi-l-Ftiqād (Eng. The Golden Mean of Belief), he insists on the tenet that the individual human act, similar to some other event on the planet, is likewise the immediate making of God. Causal viability dwells in God alone. [20]

No individual can work at a wide range of exchanges. Yet by the desire of God, upon one is lapsed one artistry and upon another two, and the entire network needs, one part upon the other. At the point when ravenousness, aspiration, and avarice hold influence in the hearts of men since some are not satisfied to see others get respects. It is in light of the fact that they don’t try to subdue their needs, jealousy and scorn emerge among them. As man’s necessities on the planet are three, viz: dress, nourishment, and safe house, so expressions of the human experience of the world are three, viz: weaving, planting, and building. The remainder of expressions of the human experience fills either for the need of culminating the others or for fixing wounds. In this manner, the spinner helps crafted by weaving; the tailor completes that work to flawlessness, while the material dresser adds excellence to work. In human expressions, there is a need for iron, skins, and wood, and for these, numerous instruments are fundamental. [21]

The world resembles a conjurer. Who shows himself to you just as he would stay with you and would perpetually be next to you, while in truth, this world is consistently upon the purpose of being grabbed away from you, despite you are serenity unaware of it. The world resembles a shadow, which, while you see it, appears to be fixed, even though in all actuality, it is moving. Life resembles running water, which is continually progressing, yet far off, imagine that it is still and changeless, and you wish to fix your habitation it. The world again resembles a conjurer who performs for your demonstrations of companionship. He shows love for far off for winning your expressions of love to him: however, when he has verified your affection, he dismisses his face from you. [22]

Conclusion:

The concept of knowledge with Al-Ghazali is not an abstract or pure concept but rather a concept with dimensions related to God, man, and the world. Al-Ghazali believes that education is directly related to the creator of man and existence, and it is he who honors the man with this knowledge. Also, knowing one’s person and about life necessarily leads to knowledge of God.

Bibliography:

  • Abdul Ḥaq, Muḥammad, “The Perspective of At-Tawḥīd, in Islamic Studies 22: No. 3 (Autumn, 1983). Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20847235
  • Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, by Mohammed Al-Ghazzali, the Mohammedan Philosopher, trans. Henry A. Homes (Albany, N.Y.: Munsell, 1873). Transactions of the Albany Institute, VIII. 3/28/2017. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1844.
  • ______________, Amin, Faris Nabih (tr.): The Book of knowledge; translated (Eng. Kitāb al-’ilm of al-Ghazzālī’s Iḥya’ ‘ulūm al-dīn (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1962. Rs. 15, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 26, No. 3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00070427 (Published online: 24 December 2009).
  • Azram, E M., “Epistemology: An Islamic Perspective,” in IIUM Engineering Journal (12: 5, 2011), Special Issue on Science and Ethics in Engineering.
  • Decosimo, David, “An Umma of Accountability: Al-Ghazālī against Domination,” in Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 98, No. 3, (2015). DOI: 10.5325/soundings.98.3.0260, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/soundings.98.3.0260
  • Elkaisy-Friemuth, Maha, God and Humans in Islamic Thought: Abd Al-Jabbar, Ibn Sina, and Al-Ghazali (New York: Routledge, 2006).
  • Götz, Ignacio L., “The Quest for Certainty: Al-Ghazâlî and Descartes,” in Journal of Philosophical Research 28 (2003). DOI: 10.5840/jpr_2003_16
  • Hughes, Aaron, “Imagining the Divine: Ghazali on Imagination, Dreams, and Dreaming,” in Journal of the American Academy of Religion 70, No. 1 (Mar. 2002), p. 33. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1466368
  • Marmura, Michael E., “Ghazali and Demonstrative Science,” in Journal of the History of Philosophy 3: 2 (October 1965). Morgan, Diane, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice (California: Praeger, 2010).
  • Yassine Essid, A Critique of the Origins of Islamic Economic Thought (Leiden- Boston: Brill, 1995).

[1] Muḥammad Abdul Ḥaq, “The Perspective of At-Tawḥīd, in Islamic Studies 22: No. 3 (Autumn 1983), pp. 1-19. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20847235

[2] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, by Mohammed Al-Ghazzali, the Mohammedan Philosopher, trans. Henry A. Homes (Albany, N.Y.: Munsell, 1873). Transactions of the Albany Institute, VIII. 3/28/2017. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1844, pp. 13- 14.

[3] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 14- 15. Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 14- 15. Al-Ghazali sets out a nullification of the scholars’ contentions in his celebrated Tahafut al-falasifah. He takes note of that the rationalists in certainty deny God as the Agent of the world since something everlasting—for this situation the world—can’t have a specialist. He additionally keeps up that it was in the idea of God’s eternal will to pick when the world started. Accordingly, Ibn Rushd sees that both the logicians and the Kalam scholars translate Qur’anic stanzas relating to creation allegorically. The scholars accurately can discover no section demonstrating that God made the world from literally nothing. Jon Hoover, “Perpetual Creativity in the Perfection of God: Ibn Taymiyya’s Hadith Commentary on God’s Creation of this World,” in Journal of Islamic Studies 15, No. 3, 1 September 2004, Pages 287–329, https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/15.3.287 (01 September 2004), p. 288.

[4] Al-Ghazali, The Book of Knowledge, Faris Nabih Amin (tr.): translated with notes of the Kitāb al-’ilm of al-Ghazzālī’s Iḥya’ ‘ulūm al-dīn (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1962), pp. 3 – 4. Faris Nabih Amin (tr.): The Book of knowledge; translated with notes of the Kitāb al-’ilm of al-Ghazzālī’s Iḥya’ ‘ulūm al-dīn, vii, 236 pp. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1962. Rs. 15, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 26, No. 3, pp. 654-655. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00070427 (Published online: 24 December 2009).

[5] Yassine Essid, A Critique of the Origins of Islamic Economic Thought (Leiden- Boston: Brill, 1995), p. 30.

[6] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 15 – 16. Ignacio L. Götz argues that Descartes and al-Ghazâlî were led to inquire into the nature of certainty. They did that by their experiences of a fragmented world. In spite of the fact that they lived 500 years separated, their inquiries were comparative. It is possible to say that Descartes was more obliged to al-Ghazâlî than he would have been eager to concede. In any case, regardless of striking likenesses, there are critical contrasts. For Descartes, God was an outside underwriter; for al-Ghazâlî, God was the very truth experienced so that it someone couldn’t question. Descartes discovered sureness in any experience or idea that overpowered him by its clearness and peculiarity. Such conviction is in instinct, which is an immediate, experiential knowing. God ensures that we will not delude in this. Then again, al-Ghazâlî discovered sureness in an immediate encounter (dhawq) of God in whom all information dwells. See Ignacio L. Götz, “The Quest for Certainty: Al-Ghazâlî and Descartes,” in Journal of Philosophical Research 28 ( 2003), p. 1. DOI: 10.5840/jpr_2003_16. 6

[7] Al-Ghazali, The Book of Knowledge, Faris Nabih Amin (tr.): Being a translation with notes of the Kitāb al-’ilm of al-Ghazzālī’s Iḥya’ ‘ulūm al-dīn, op. cit., p. 3.

[8] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 18. For further discussions, See Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth, God and Humans in Islamic Thought: Abd Al-Jabbar, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali (New York: Routledge, 2006).

[9]Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 16 – 17.

[10] Diane Morgan, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice (California: Praeger, 2010), p. xxi.

[11] E M. AZRAM, “Epistemology: An Islamic Perspective,” in IIUM Engineering Journal (12: 5, 2011), Special Issue on Science and Ethics in Engineering, p. 180.

[12] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp.16 – 17.

[13]Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 17.

[14] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 35. Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 35. Aaron Hughes shows a phenomenological investigation of al-Ghazali’s dialogue of dreams and dream talk as it explicitly identifies with the personnel of the creative mind. The first memory is a significant, however vague and understudied, class, as it is liable for different visual exercises, for example, dreaming, dreams, and prescience. Thus, the results of the creative mind are vague: for the rationalists, they are fanciful. Yet for the spiritualists, they give significant access to truth. The ends are to help in the essential development of the creative mind as a nuanced and considerable class in the scholarly investigation of religion. The creative mind, at that point, is liable for interpreting the spiritual, celestial world into bodily material pictures. These pictures, like this, speak to an essential piece of the spiritualist’s understanding. The creative mind attempts to beat the crucial aniconic pressure in monotheism between God’s characteristics and His greatness. Aaron Hughes, “Imagining the Divine: Ghazali on Imagination, Dreams, and Dreaming,” in Journal of the American Academy of Religion 70, No. 1 (Mar. 2002), p. 33. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1466368. 8

[15] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 39

[16] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 42.

[17] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 44 – 45.

[18] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 65 – 71. David Decosimo clarifies the spot of control, or subjection to another’s discretionary power, in al-Ghazālī’s political idea, particularly his Counsel for Kings. Researchers have since quite a while ago idea originations of freedom immaterial to or missing from medieval Islamic political concept. Yet have dismissed the conceivable nearness of originations of freedom as non-mastery. In structure and substance, Counsel for Kings would set up and distribute philosophically grounded relations of correspondence and responsibility by which political power would compel against intervention. Drawing on late work focusing on his long-lasting political commitment and self-understanding as his age’s “Reviver” (mujaddid). Al-Ghazālī is profoundly worried about mastery and verifiably advances a hearty beginning of freedom as far as non-control. With other people who think about freedom as non-control. Al-Ghazālī distinguishes honeyed words as a unique risk to liberty and conveys his teaching of “directing right and restricting incorrectly” (ḥisba) as a cure to it and mastery all the more extensively. By it, and different methods, he propels non-overwhelming governmental issues of shared acknowledgment, or can be perused as doing as such, regardless of whether different strands of his idea push in contending bearings. See David Decosimo, “An Umma of Accountability: Al-Ghazālī against Domination,” in Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 98, No. 3 (2015), p. 260. DOI: 10.5325/soundings.98.3.0260, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/soundings.98.3.0260

[19]  Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 72, 73, 74.

[20] Michael E. Marmura, “Ghazali and Demonstrative Science,” in Journal of the History of Philosophy 3: 2 (October 1965), p. 183.

[21] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 78 – 79.

[22] Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, pp. 69 – 70.


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