The phenomenon of family violence, and its increase under corona pandemic
ظاهرة العنف الأسري وارتفاعها في ظل جائحة كورونا
D.Bouhrik Karima/University Abbess Laghrour Khenchela , Algeria
د .بوحريق كريمة/جامعة عباس لغرور خنشلة الجزائر.
ورقة منشورة في كتاب أعمال المؤتمر الدولي المحكم حول الحجر الصحي الصفحة 129.
يتميز الإنسان كونه اجتماعي الطبع ، فلا يستطيع العيش بمفرده ، إنما ينشئ في ظل أسرة دائمة تمثل السبب الرئيسي في تواجده في الحياة البشرية، ويتمثل طباعه ومنظومته القيمية من هذه الوحدة وذلك من خلال عملية التنشئة الاجتماعية، فيكون الفرد بذلك شخصا سويا متوازنا، أو يكون شخصا يحمل من التناقضات والسلوكيات المضطربة ما يشكل به خطرا على نفسه والمجتمع، ومن هذه السلوكيات الخاطئة التي قد يتربى عليها الإنسان ، العنف وخاصة العنف الأسري ؛ هذه الظاهرة التي رافقت التواجد الإنساني وحيرت المؤسسات والمفكرين في كيفية الحد منها أو على الأقل التقليل منها ، فهي ظاهرة خطيرة وقديمة وعالمية وتزداد بروزا في ظل الحروب والأوبئة ؛ منها ما يعيشه العالم اليوم في ظل جائحة كورونا وما تعانيه النساء والأطفال ، فمن جهة هاجس الوباء ، ومن جهة أخرى تحمل عواقب العنف الأسري.
الكلمات المفتاحية : الأسرة ، العنف الأسري ، جائحة كورونا.
Man is a social being. He cannot live alone. Because he was grown up in a permanent family that represents the main reason behind his presence in human life. The social environment is the process that shapes his attitudes and system of values in this unity of human life. Thus, the individual could become either a balanced person. or, someone with contradictions and disordered behaviors who could cause more damage to his society and to himself. Among these bad behaviors that a person could acquire from his society is violence; especially family violence. This phenomenon accompanied human existence and confused the thinkers, and institutions on how to reduce it. This phenomenon is dangerous, ancient and global. it appears more in the time of wars and epidemics; as what the world is facing right now, an epidemic called corona virus made from the women and children victims of suffering. On one hand they have to deal with the epidemic fear , and on other hand consequences of the family violence.
Key words: Family, family violence, Corona’s pandemic.
Man is a complex being who is a part of social interactions, and contributes to the valuable phenomenon. Since the establishment of human civilizations, Man has been an important unit of study in which scientific theories, myths and facts have also been held. Although human thought has evolved and the stereotypical intellectual image of peoples and generations has changed, the survival and development of some social phenomena is puzzling; An example of this phenomenon is family violence, which is an old and widespread phenomenon in all societies, has not changed its intensity; on the contrary, it has increased and has become more widespread, despite continuing efforts to reduce it and reduce its risks by civil society institutions, legal bodies and human rights organizations.
It is well known that family violence is a global phenomenon in developed countries as well as in the developing countries, and with different cultural patterns and societies’ value system, this phenomenon is worsening and leading to serious consequences for individuals and for all society.
The study perspectives of this phenomenon differ; between the attention given to the psychological and behavioral analysis of violent persons and to the patterns represented by the victims of violence, to care about the social and anthropology causes of this phenomenon . There are also other theoretical approaches that examine the consequences of family violence and how to reduce its effects…
However, in the light of the fact of the living reality and information transmitted by the media , this phenomenon has become more acute under the Covid pandemic 19. At a time when countries have been discussing new mechanisms to combat domestic violence, the new epidemic has spread dramatically. This has prompted governments to take preventive measures, most notably domestic quarantine, which has not been adapted to measures to protect victims of violence, domestic quarantine, which has exacerbated the phenomenon and its dire consequences.
On the one hand, the obsession with the epidemic, and on the other, the obsession with domestic violence, has become double-pressure on women and children, as the weakest and most vulnerable link to violence by men, according to most studies around the world. This scientific article came to shed light on the phenomenon of domestic violence in its kidney, and also to highlight the reasons for its escalation in the shadow of the Corona pandemic, and the question is when could we put an end to this phenomenon? Why does it get worse under emergency conditions such as wars and epidemics?
- conceptual entry
1/ The Concept Of Marriage
“And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.” Verse 21, The Romans.
Dignified verse defines what marriage, as well as its purposes and conditions for its success. God created women and men from the same soul to sustain tranquillity, psychological and social stability. He made amity as the first condition that expresses love between the couple, as well as mercy; that is the main feature to help families and couples to maintain continuity through mutually accepting each other and feeling what others feel. The gracious verse has defined what is a successful marriage that should be based on love and compassion; its main objective is reassurance and psychological stability.
Marriage in modern sciences is defined as “a social system characterized by continuity and compliance with social standards, which is the means upon which society can regulate sexual matters and determine responsibility for adult sexual intercourse images”. In this sense, marriage is essentially linked to sexual gratification in the standard form determined by society; In our social context, this legitimate relationship between two parties is defined by women and men, who are linked according to the religious and legal system, inter alia, for the purposes of sexual gratification and reproduction. Marriage is a “legal contract and institution between men and women based on social interests of a spiritual and religious nature”
The contract was stipulated “by mutual consent and by the legitimate face, and one of its objectives is to form a family based on intimacy, mercy, cooperation and to preserve the breed”.
We understand from the above that marriage is a relationship between men and women in the legal framework of religious belief and is based on two basic conditions of its survival and continuity: Cordiality and compassion; there are other important factors that play a role in the success of marriage
- 1-1/ Marriage Compatibility factors:
Age factor: The age difference may play a double role that differs from case to case, sometimes if this difference is related to a narcissistic print of one of the parties, it will inevitably lead to a situation of continuous marital struggle and repeated attempt to control the weaker party. This results from different life experience and goals, and a way of living practice, which results in problems associated with conflict and control. However, the age difference between couples may be useful for family relations if the spouse’s personality has the characteristics of flexibility and a shared view of goals and the family’s interest over person al interest.
Intellectual and cultural convergence factor: This is one of the most important variables for the success and stability of the marital relationship, since intellectual and scientific convergence consolidates the perception of life practice as well as helping and supporting the development of the practical and scientific process of the two parties. On the other hand, convergence in the social environment reduces the clashes that result from their differences. It defines the community base from the sum of customs, traditions and customs, and whenever there is social convergence, the gap between the couple has narrowed, contributing to family stability and the normalization of children with undistorted and unified intellectual habits to ensure that they are psychologically and socially strong.
Economic factor: Marital relationship is subject to different life pressures, the most important of which is the economic situation of the family; As social life today becomes more demanding and consumerist, which forced both spouses to work to respond to these daily requirements of life, this may create the problems of raising and guiding children, and bearing the environment of labor pressure that humans may carry with them into their family. Hence, the process of changing roles or their duplication that creates certain conditions is a pressure and incompatibility environment.
On the other hand, the economic factor plays another negative role in the inability of poor families to meet the needs of children and families in general, which creates the kind of problems studied by specialists and shows the poverty factor as a main variable in it. Among these problems are matrimonial conflicts and parental conflicts between parents and their children, which can lead to different kinds of violence.
Reproductive factor: the marital relationship is created mainly to achieve sexual gratification and reproduction that ensures the family’s continuity in our cultural and doctrinal forms. Besides, the problems of non-reproduction for different reasons may be a factor in the emergence of an environment that is not compatible between the couple in which problems and conflicts appear. Especially if it is women who do not have the capacity to childbearing, this is the result of the cultural and social accumulations in our societies that unjustly judge women.
On the other hand, an immoderate reproduction may cause problems and disorders in the marital relationship, especially if it is related to the economic factor, and the lack of awareness among the parents of the necessity of organizing the offspring to maintain the family stability.
Communication factor: Good communication between couples leads to a healthy family that deals with the logic of dialog, listening to the problems of the other, trying to reach solutions and overcoming difficulties and pressures of life. Many studies have found that the majority of problems between couples and families are the result of lack of dialog and lack of communication.
These and other factors contribute significantly and directly to a healthy and stable marital relationship with the aim of creating a successful family.
1-2/the purposes of marriage:
Marriage has many diverse purposes, the most important of which is in our ideological and social settings.
- Sexual gratification: The Islamic law and the Algerian law that derives from it determined the sexual relationship must be in the legal framework, known as the consent of the parties, and the guardian for the unmarried woman, as well as the dowry* and the presence of the two witnesses, are legally formulated, with which women’s rights are essentially preserved .
- Preserving the human race: The most important of legal, spiritual and social aims is to preserve the human race by reproducing through marriage that protects filial descent and the children’s legitimacy in the society. Unlike, the Arab and Islamic societies that do not usually have the issue of procreation, the non-Islamic societies suffer today from this issue. They have a high rate of aging. These countries offered awards for its people to encourage procreation, and protect the race from the continuous aging.
- Controlling the diseases: There are a set of known sexual diseases that come from unhealthy relationships that are prohibited by the religious and social context.
- Among these diseases: syphilis, AIDS and gonorrhea and others.
- the spirit of serenity: This factor is attained by choosing well your partner. As long as your choice is good, peace , clemency and affection are attainable between them this would lead to healthier relationships and a balanced family.
2/ the definition of family:
The family is a universal and worldwide system, not a historical break through as some social theories claim. Family has appeared alongside with the appearance of Man , and all the abrahamic religions approved it by the engagement of women to man through the ages. The literary term of family ” solid shield, the man’s family and his tribe , and it is called a group of people that are joining by something in common, it is plural is families” we find this concept large and complex. It could include the security that family does inside a bigger group which is called a tribe.
On the hand, we find that ” Ahmed Zaki Badoui, in dictionary of social science terms, he said that family is the first social unite that aims to protect the Man diversity, and it raises on what it is common, and the rules that different societies agree upon it” Durkheim defined it as” it is not that natural resemblance of parents, and how many children they bring – as it is common- but it is an institution built for social reasons. Its people are connected legally and by virtues “ this definition has dropped the main function of family which is procreation and gave it other dimensions as the social necessity.
This definition does not agree with the common beliefs of the society we belong to.
The precreation is an essential part to create a family according to a valuable organization that englobes religion, traditions and habits, this what makiver and pidge Introduced” the family is a group connected through sexual relationship that could procreate children and take care after them”
Family is a social unity that exists in all the human societies. it is the basic social building for the individuals and it is the main transmitter of social values to children and linguistic skills and all what come from the kid to the outside world, it mainly constructed within family
From all what is said above, we find that the main characteristics of a family are:
- Family is the main social unity in the
- It is constructed mainly from women, men and children, it could consist more than two
- They live in a shared house and live
- The members of a family have constraints that depend on the valuable organisation that is constructed upon on religion, culture and set of traditions and
- It is considered the basic environment for the kid to build his/her linguistic skills and communication
. 2-1/ different main kinds of family:
There are set of different kinds of family, yet in this article, we would deal with two different kinds of family in the local Algerian society:
The traditional family: this family could contain more than two generations (parents, kids, the married and unmarried, and the grandsons…) it is known by strong connection between the members of the family. It is hierarchical, usually the older person in the family holds the control. This kind of family usually exists in the countryside more than in the cities.
According to studies, this kind of family despite its disappearance, its cultural form still exists.
the modern family: the nuclear family that is constructed from the parents, and unmarried children. It is well spread in the cities mainly. It is known by the balance in the roles, the differences between the two genders are not clear. This kind of family is more independent, since the woman could go to work alongside her husband.
And between the two kinds of family of the Algerian society, we find many challenges that society faces; especially with the fast change, and influence of social media on children and adolescents to change their visions.
2-2/ The functions of family:
The socio- anthropological heritage is full of theories dealing with family and different types, tracing its development through history, and gives us a clue on how family is related to all life functions; as politics, economy and culture and others. Without doubt, family is connected by history with the surrounding environment, and it managed to develop and change by time and space. ” Despite the change of family functions , the sexual and recreation function remains the main function. There is always the economic function that is described by the transmission of the manners of daily consuming and transmission of means of production. Family keeps the social function alongside with other institutions.”
- The social function: Family plays a vital role ” with different ways through history and in different cultures, it is the main institution in the society , its function remains in keeping the man kind , and becoming the protector of the kids and participates with the different social institutions in developing the society” we find that protecting the human kind from disappearance through legal relationship in the legal framework is mentioned in the law and Sharia that is the main aim of marriage and family. We find that thanks to this framework, this group could participate in developing society and helping in building it and su[port the other institutions.
- The economic function: The economic function is among the main roles of families that have faced so many changes. At the beginning, financial source was mainly focused on the family and self finance and based on men . Nowadays, ” family relies on the exterieur to feed its needs and marketing their products in the countryside(…) it has become consumerist type; especially in the city.” as a result of these involvements in the side of thinking, cultural and social. Alongside, with the women being able to go outside to learn and have a job, she has become a part of the family who helps in financing their family with the husband and becomes independent financially that eventually leads to freedom of thinking .
- the educational function, or the socialisation : Family is considered as the first step for the kid to acquire hisher culture and values. In addition, he/she learns the linguistic and communication skills. In the old societies, this was a group work that all the members of the family participated in, from the grandparents to uncles . Yet, today has become “the basic environment that constructs the individual who has a kind of social conscience and is connected to his/ her issues. Families should provide social , economic and cultural security to kids. The parents should adapt to the new ways of socializing , and should be able to create a generation that is capable of playing a role in the development of society and on a level of knowledge and cultivated and to encourage “ Yet , this requires the existence of a solid, balanced marriage relationship. In addition, the parents should be cultivated and have an amount of knowledge , alongside with their conscience of the main aim which is developing society and working on betterment of the institutions.
There exist also other functions, but we did not tackle them, because they are related to the main functions mentioned above.
- Sociological vision of family violence:
Family violence is considered as an old and dangerous phenomenon, it is a global phenomenon that occurs in all the developed and developing societies. Yet, in the easter and Arabic societies was considered as a taboo . there was not much talking about it from the victims. This is the result of the social instructions, that consist of a couple of traditions and habits forbidding to say what is happening inside the family. However, in the last few years, with the encouragement of the state and social civil institutions to fight this dangerous phenomenon. Today, we see much more experts, researchers and media have become more interested in shedding light on this issue.
The family violence differs from society to another because it across with a couple of traditions and habits. Meanwhile, the direction of law changed from an Arabic state to another, for example, the honor crimes in Jordan, the culprit has reduced sentences, while in Algeria, it is considered as a crime and the culprit is punished by clear laws” . besides, family violence constructed an important study unite for so many researchers. Some decided to deal with the dimensions of knowledge, psychological and personal of the violence. While some decided to study the dynamics of violence inside the family, while some researchers focused on the social nature of the problem by analyzing the structural dimensions , especially between two sex”.
1/ concept of domestic violence:
On the basis of what has been said above we find a multitude of definitions of domestic violence; first of all a linguistic definition” violence is the mistreatment of an individual and it is the opposite of good treatment. Violence is being violent, behaving violently. i.e. he takes it violently“, and the treatment methods listed as violence vary “often we talk about child neglect and abuse as family violence, since violence includes physical assault on a family member, either the wife or the children, by another family member, such as the father, But most studies also suggest that any assault on a family member, be it abuse, and even neglect of children, is considered violence”.
The focus is on women and children who are victims of violence. Numerous statistics and global studies conducted by researchers have shown that violence against men is often rare: “Direct and indirect acts against family members for the purpose of inflicting psychological, verbal, physical orsexual harm is domestic violence“, as defined by DjebrinAli “violence is any act or word that leads to physical abuse, neglect or violence in any way Psychological, emotional or otherwise, carried out by one family member towards another family member”.
The number of cases of domestic violence of all kinds is strongly on the rise in all societies, and despite the efforts of institutions and members of society, this phenomenon is still linked to the lack of statistics and their lack of accuracy, especially the perception in some societies of the victim who is subjected to violence and the way in which they treat it, even on the part of families who force the victim to remain silent and indifferent before this act in order not to transgress the structural principles of the organism of society, for fear of social prejudice such as divorce, or the victim’s fear of possible revenge from the perpetrator if a complaint is filed against him for violence against her or her children. Despite the efforts made to raise awareness in order to reduce and minimise this phenomenon, by introducing tough new laws. In the same context UN report was published in 2002 entitled “Violence and Health describing violence as: the deliberate use of threats using force and authority against another person or group which will lead to trauma and moral harm, as well as hinder growth and all kinds of deprivation”. According to Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women issued by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 1993 “any act of gender-based violence that results in physical, sexual or psychological harm to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private
2/CAUSE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:
Domestic violence is an ancient social phenomenon which persists, its intensity differs from one society to another and according to specialists it is caused by several factors:
– Religious disbelief or so-called spiritual disbelief: Belief in God and the Charter values of the Human Being include the rights and duties deriving from the spirit of religion followed, including refraining from injustice, adultery, prejudice and violence; if the spiritual side disappears, all kinds of violence, including domestic violence, appear.
– Economic factor: We discussed in an earlier part of the article the importance of the economic factor and its role in creating a more balanced relationship in the family and its negative impact, many studies have shown that poor families have a much higher rate of violence than rich families, due to the inability to meet the daily demands of their wives and children. Faced with these burdensome pressures, couples resort to violence.
– Social education: We have approached family functions from the fact that the child is characterized by communication skills within its internal environment and receives its psychological and social behavior mainly from its parents; therefore the child learns through cumulative examples through communication and dialogue styles, and if its mother is particularly victim to violence, her behaviour will be influenced in the future, believing that violence is the true competence of communication and control in general. Most children who are involved in a violent environment are more likely to become violent, so today’s studies warn against this behaviour in front of and with children in order to limit this dangerous phenomenon in the future.
-There are other reasons which stimulate domestic violence, “such as emotional incompatibility, jealousy and betrayal in marriage, the struggle for control at home, cultural problems, alcoholism and drug abuse and the failure to establish a healthy relationship with the other”.
– The couple’s cultural ideologies are incompatible
– Low sense of love and satisfaction in the family
– Bad intervention of foreign persons in the relationship between the spouses.
-Psychological problems arise during family discussions
All these factors and others are causes which contribute to the emergence of domestic violence as a negative phenomenon which pushes us to intensify societal efforts to reduce and combat it.
3/ Domestic violence forms: Specialists identify many manifestations of domestic violence :
– Physical violence” is the deliberate use of physical force towards others, in order to harm them and inflict serious injuries, as a means of illegal punishment, leading to pain, such as beating, kicking, pulling hair and biting “
– Verbal violence: “In this case, the aggressor addresses the victim with obscene words devaluing her honour and that of her family, but also threatening to reveal her secrets to her family. Or to harm someone they love or to damage their loved ones’ property. ” 
– Neglect: For humans, the greatest threat to human life is psychological and emotional instability, and extreme neglect, followed by other methods of violence, can lead to death, represented in several types :
* Physical neglect: Rejection, physical alienation and failure to receive health care in case of illness.
* Emotional neglect: Abuse, less communication, lack of dialogue.
* Sexual Neglect: Deliberate omission of the relationship to harm the other party.
Therefore, domestic violence is not necessarily physical violence in order to be considered violence; it comes in many forms; referred to as the cycle of violence; It starts with moral violence from neglect to verbal abuse, until it reaches its peak and it is physical violence, and it is necessary to raise awareness in the community in order to condemn all those stereotypes that consider this phase as inevitable in the family lineage What often leads to the escalation of cases to the point of murder and loss of life is indeed; silence about neglect and verbal abuse. And so there is a need for intensive community awareness-raising, especially with the high murder rates in Algeria, which are the reasons for the victim’s silence and the lack of attention to the first signs of manifestta
4/Consequences of domestic violence: Domestic violence has many serious consequences, the most fearsome of which are associated with death and physical harm.
Health effects: Domestic violence against women and children – domestic violence is related to them as victims because according to expert reports domestic violence in the case of men is rare – serious physical and psychological consequences. Although being beaten is only a small part of the negative effects on women’s health, it is the most obvious form, and injuries vary worldwide; from bruises, fractures, and even disabilities, such as loss of vision or hearing and distortion caused by burns, genital mutilation, and often death.
The effects of violence on children and their behavior: Contrary to what some parents believe, children are deeply affected by conflict and violence within the family, and the anger and anxiety that the child feels will inflict on his future partner, as each parent is seen as a role model or the child is influenced by his parents’ behavior, which explains how a young man who has grown up in an atmosphere of violence is often a violent person in the future.
Children are characterized by emotional intelligence, which allows them to distinguish between regular quarrels between their parents and violent situations, and they fall into a psychological and behavioral struggle, namely, the inability to take sides and feel the other party affected and the feeling that they are also victims. On the other hand, if the child is subjected to direct violence directed against him or her, he or she will be created in a dangerous and unhealthy environment, where he or she is exposed to losing trust in adults, suffering from anxiety and dangerous attachment disorders, and will in most cases be a violent person, as he or she will inevitably feel great anger towards people.
Social and Economic Impacts: Family violence has social and economic impacts that weigh on communities, such as children dropping out of school, family separation, poor communication, juvenile delinquency, as well as the costs of physical and psychological treatment resulting from domestic violence and the costs of finding alternative shelter for children and women who have experienced violence.
The effects of domestic violence are many and varied, affecting the individual and society, from behavioral and psychological dysfunction to physical damage. and the adverse economic and social consequences of this abhorrent phenomenon.
- The COVID-19 Pandemic and domestic violence:
The phenomenon of domestic violence is an ancient and complex phenomenon, fought by all international institutions, and we have discussed its well-known causes and some of its effects on the individual and society, but it has grown dramatically following the covid-19 pandemic. It is an epidemic that has terrified all humanity because of its rapid spread and the different patterns of coronary viruses before it.
This virus is a cause of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-COV-2) and was officially adopted in February 2020. The choice was based on the genetic association of the virus with the coronavirus that caused the spread of SARS in 2003. The National Commission and the World Health Organization (which) announced that COVID-19 is the official name of this serious disease and genetically developed by its predecessors in the viral family.
The disease spreads primarily among people, through coughing, sneezing, talking and direct touching with hands and surfaces, leading to severe cold symptoms, leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome, leading to death, and easy spread and transmission of the epidemic between countries, states, cities and individuals. All countries have taken precautionary measures to try to limit the spread, the most important of which is containment and social distancing.
Despite the pre-existing epidemics that resemble this current crisis, we find different scenarios for the difficulty of this virus and its intelligent genetic development, which intrigued scientists about a year ago, creating sudden changes in the daily routine, closing schools and a shortage of vital resources. In addition to unemployment, limited access to social support systems, prohibition of family gatherings and visits. All of this has somehow led to an increase in domestic violence, and according to global statistics, China, the country of the first case of COVID-19, reported an increase in cases of domestic violence up to three times during the pandemic. While in France an increase of 30% was reported, in Brazil more than 40% of the cases increased as well as other countries such as the United States, Spain and Italy.
Wars, natural disasters and epidemics are generally becoming more and more frequent. As is the case, the Covid-19 pandemic has had repercussions on families, and cases of violence, among these repercussions :
* Stress and disruption of communication with the social environment
* Take social distancing measures and encourage people to stay in their homes
* Economic pressures and unemployment caused by quarantine measures
* Prohibition of gatherings and entertainment activities that contribute to the release of negative energy
* Women are taking full care of their children following the closure of schools and nurseries.
* Lack of family visits and lack of courtesy and friendship visits result in the absence of support individuals and groups. All these factors and others have produced a kind of psychological and economic stress, forcing people to stay together for a long time in a place more specifically married couples who are inside the house without any activity to do could cause many confrontations and conflicts leading to the use of violence mainly by the husband to the wife and children, with disastrous consequences up to murder.
On the other hand, UNICEF warned of a general disaster that could affect children, as measures to close schools and educational institutions, forcing children to stay at home would increase their risk of sexual exploitation, abuse, and neglect. At the same time the positive and supportive relationships that children enjoy in educational institutions are sadly interrupted in bitchy relationships with teachers, peers, friends, as well as in bitchy family relationships with grandparents, neighbors and friends in civil society.
A UNICEF report indicates a number of risk factors that lead to violence against children;
– Increased poverty and lack of food security after job losses.
– Children do not have access to education in the classroom and through applications.
– Increase in children’s technological activity and reduced control of caregivers, which means increased cyber risks for children.
– Use of temporary illegal care solutions and the risks they may pose as child sexual abuse and exploitation.
According to the statements of the head of the Documentation Center on the Rights of Children and Women, human rights activist Nadia AitZai, regarding Algerian society, in these exceptional circumstances the curfew and quarantine measures have not been followed by measures to protect women, children and even those with special needs. The incidence of domestic violence has considerably doubled, with women suffering from the obsession of fear of the epidemic and domestic violence.
The head of the Algerian Women’s Observatory, member of the United Nations Regional National Committee, ShaiaaJa’fari, also said that the UN committee had revealed a strong increase in domestic violence against women. It is explained that Algeria, like countries living in the circumstances of the pandemic, has also experienced an increase in the number of cases of domestic violence and added that the inability of women to confide in specialized services and prefer silence and secrecy instead of disclosing the violence against them, suffered by Husband, Father or Brother.
On the other hand, the phenomenon has increased the suffering of women as well as social stereotypes that do not allow them to complain about violence and in light of the fact that they are in their forties, and the prohibition of groupings and the presence of children in the home, which has exacerbated the situation and led to serious consequences that have caused loss of life.
The consequences of domestic violence are serious, damaging both to individuals and to society, and efforts must be intensified to win this fight, especially at the present time, although human consciousness and thought is growing, many cases of domestic violence are not treated seriously and decisively by the victims. This is the result of a value system that imposes stereotypical cultural restrictions on the victim and prevents them from disclosing everything for fear of divorce, as they believe, or for fear of the aggressor.
Whether he is represented by the father, the brother or the husband
It is therefore necessary to mobilize a source of physical and moral protection for the battered woman, and even for the child. And adapt them to emergency situations such as sudden epidemics or wars, in order to reduce and slow down this dangerous phenomenon which, in many cases, leads to death and puts an end to people’s lives.
Societies can tackle the phenomenon of domestic violence like this:
-training and rehabilitation for women and men before marriage.
-Promoting the right choice of partner, through scientific and cultural parity, to minimize confrontation.
-Opening hotlines for women and children to report cases of violence.
-Developing firm legal procedures to punish those involved in violence.
-Opening spaces for societal entertainment and promoting a culture of a relaxed lifestyle to reduce daily stress for the couple.
– Do not blame the victim on the part of the family when filing a complaint.
- a list of sources and references
The Holy Quran, Surat Al-Rum, verse 21.
1 / Books in arabic:
1- ABU CHAMA Abd al-Mahmoud Abbas, Mohammed al-Amin al-Bishri, Domestic Violence in the Light of Globalization, Center for Studies and Research, Riyadh, 2005.
2- Ahmed Saleh Dhaifallah Alia, Violence against women, Al-Ma’moun House for Publishing and Distribution, Jerusalem, 1st Edition, 2010.
3- Ibrahim Daabs Mohammed Yousri, The Family in the Religious and Social Heritage, Egypt, Dar Al Maaref, 1995.
4- Hassan Nouran, Social Implications of the Corona Pandemic for the Covid 19 Pandemic, Dirasat Journal, Egyptian Institute for Studies 2020.
5- Debla Abdel-Ali, Introduction to Sociological Analysis, Dar Al-Khaldounia, Algeria, 2001.
6- Chaker Majeed Sawsan, Violence and Childhood, Salah House for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, 2008
7 – Ali Jibreen Jibreen, Domestic Violence During Life Stages, King Khalid Charitable Foundation, Riyadh, 1st Edition, 2005
8- Abdel Hamid Rashwan Hussein, Family and Society, Study in Family Sociology, UniversityYouth Foundation, Egypt 2003
9 QusayrAbd al-Qadir, The Changing Family in the Society of the Arab City, a field study in urban and family sociology, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Lebanon, 1999, Tariq Muhammad, Environmental and FamilyProblems, University Youth Foundation, Alexandria, 2008
10- Mitchell Dinkel, A Dictionary of Sociology, Translation, Ihssan Mohammed Hassan, Dar Al-Taleea, Beirut, 2nd Edition, 1986
11- A group of authors, Al-Wasee tDictionary, House of Revival of ArabHeritage, Beirut, without mentioning the year
12- Tarik Mohammed, Environmental and Family Problems, University Youth Foundation, Alexandria, 2008
2 / Scientific Articles:
13- Al-UqlaKhalaf, Al-Salami Charity, Al-Dridi Tari, the Corona Covid 19 pandemic and its implications for the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, ALECSO Scientific Bulletin, Specialized Issue 2, Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science, 2020
14- Al-Bayoumi Muhammad Al-Rawi Behansi, Domestic Violence, Its Causes, Its Effects and Its Treatment in Islamic Jurisprudence, Flogging 9, Issue 32, Annals of the College of Islamic and Arabic Studies for Girls, Alexandria.
15- Ben Nasser Azouz, Formal Conditions for Concluding a Marriage Contract in the Algerian and Comparative Legislation, Child Rights Laboratory Notebooks, Volume 3, Issue 1, University of Oran 2, 2012.
16- Mohammed Ezzat Arabi Kitabi, Family Violence directed at children and its relationship to psychological loneliness, a field study on a sample of first-grade high school students in Damascus Country side, Damascus University Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1, Syria 2012.
17- Maarouf Munawar, Iman Lafifi, Factors Affecting the Achievement of Marital Compatibility (A theoretical approach) Al Maqar Magazine, Volume 24, Issue 50, Constantine University, 2020
18- Sahnoun Karimia, Domestic Violence and its Impact on the Psychological and Social Aspect of Violated Women, Journal of Human Sciences, Vol. B, No. 43, University of Constantine, 2015.
References in foreign language :
19 World Health Organization, report of Covid -19 and violence Against Women, 2020.
20 Andrew Campbell, in increasing grisk of family violence during the covid 19 panademic, journal pre –proof, USA, 2020.
21 Christine Frisch, domestic violence strikes children, Desmarez, Belgium, 2016.
22 Mehr khan, domestic violence, with regard to women and girls, digest innocente, n 6, Italy, Unicef, 2000.
23 Danielle Lafontaine and others, abused women behind the mask of silence, collection of testimonies and analyzes, n 04, university of Quebec Canada; 1992.
24 Geneviève Lessard, conjugal, family and structural violence TOWARDS an integrative perspective of knowledge, international review, n22, Laval, canada, 2015.
25 Alexander Karpov, socialization for the knowledge society, international journal of environment, vol 11, n10, usa, 2016.
26 Sociologist Group, Takingin to Account the Diversity of Families, Family and Childhood Council, Canada, 2005.
27 CLAUDE MARTIN, the functions of the family, French notebooks, n 322, France.
28 YVONNE castellan, the family, French university press, France, 1995.
29 Frédéric lebaron, sociology, dunod, France, 2009.
30 HAFIA CHIHTA, Algerian family law, Algeria, 1993.
 The Quran, Surat Al-Rum, verse 21
 Dinkel Mitchell, The Dictionary of Sociology, Translation, Ihssan Mohammed Hassan, Dar Al-Tale’a, Beirut, 2nd Edition, 1986, p.13
 HAFIA CHIHTA, Algerian Family Law, Algeria, 1993,47
 Azzouz Ben Nasser, Formal Conditions for Concluding a Marriage Contract in Algerian and Comparative Legislation, Child Rights Laboratory Notebooks, Volume 3, Issue 1, University of Oran 2, 2012, p.13
 Lamnour Maarouf, Iman Laafifi, Factors Affecting the Achievement of Marital Compatibility (A theoretical approach) Al-Maqar Magazine, Volume 24, Issue 50, University of Constantine
2020, pp. 493-497
 Tarik Mohammed, Environmental and Family Problems, University Youth Foundation, Alexandria, 2008, pp. 124, 126
 A group of authors, Al-Waseet Dictionary, House of Revival of Arab Heritage, Beirut, p. 18.
 Ibid, p. 34.
 Ibid, p. 34.
 YVONNE castellan, the family, universitypress of France, France, 1995, p 29.
 CLAUDE MARTIN, the functions of the family, the French notebooks, n 322, France, p29
 Muhammad Yousri Ibrahim Daabs, The Family in the Religious and Social Heritage, Egypt, Dar Al Maaref, 1995, p. 59.
 Alexander Karpov, socialization for the knowledge society, international journal of environment, vol 11,n10,2016,usa,2016,p3487.
 Geneviève Lessard, conjugal, family and structural violence TOWARDS an integrative perspective
of knowledge, international review, n22, Laval, canada, 2015.p3.
 Alia Ahmed Saleh Deifallah, Violence against women, Al-Ma’moun House for Publishing and Distribution, Jerusalem, 1st Edition, 2010, pg 21
 Mohammed Ezzat Arabi Kitabi, Family Violence directed at children and its relationship to psycho logical loneliness, a fieldstudy on a sample of first-grade high school students in Damascus Countryside, Damascus University Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1, Syria, 2012, p.74
 Jibreen Ali Al-Jibreen, Domestic Violence During Life Stages, King Khalid Charitable Foundation, Riyadh, 1st Edition, 2005, pg.24.
 AbdelaliDabla, IntroductiontoSociologicalAnalysis, Dar Al-Khaldounia, Algeria, 2001, p. 111.
 Ibid, p. 112.
 Mohammed al-Bayoumi, the narrator of Behansi, Domestic Violence, Its Causes, ItsEffects and
ItsTreatment in Islamic Jurisprudence, Flogging 9, Issue 32, Annals of the College of Islamic and ArabicStudies for Girls, Alexandria, p. 182.
 Hussein Abdel-Hamid Rashwan, Family and Society, Study in Family Sociology, University Youth Foundation, Egypt, 2003, p. 88.
 . Sawsan Shaker Majeed, Violence and Childhood, Salah House for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, 2008, p. 284.
 Garmiyat Sahnoun, Domestic Violence and its Impact on the Psychological and Social Aspect of Battered Women, Journal of Human Sciences, Vol. B, No. 43, Constantine University, 2015, p. 717.
 Mohammed Ezzat Arabi Kitabi, previous reference, page 77.
 Danielle Lafontaine and others, abused women behind the mask of silence, collection of testimonies and analyzes, n 04, university of Quebec Canada; 1992, p17.
 Mehr khan, domestic violence, with regard to women and girls, digest innocent, n 6, Italy UNICEF, 2000, p9.
 Christine Frisch, domestic violence strikes children, Desmarez, Belgium, 2016, p27-31.
 Behind Al-Uqla, Khairia Al-Salami, Tariq Al-Dridi, the Corona Covid 19 pandemic and its implications for the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, ALECSO Scientific Publication, Specialized Issue 2, Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science, 2020, p-p, 15-18.
 World healthorganization,repport of covid -19 and violence againstwomen ,2020
 Algerian newspaper Al-Shorouk, Wasila network receives 70 calls per week for battered women 04/18/2020.
Q-Post, fears of an increase in violence against women and children in Algeria due to stone
 Q-Post, fears of an increase in violence against women and children in Algeria due to stone