The Flood Myth in the book ” kanzaldarar & Jamiealgharr ” by Al-Dawadari (died:737 AH/1336 AD) a comparative reading
أسطورة الطوفان في كتاب كنز الدّرر وجامع الغرر للدواداري (ت:737هـ/1336 م) قراءة مقارنة
Prof. Osama Kadhim Omran Altaie • Zainab Mohammed Obaies/University of Babylon –Iraq أ.د. أسامة كاظم عمران الطائي• زينب محمد عبيس/جامعة بابل، العراق
مقال منشور في 78مجلة جيل العلوم الانسانية والاجتماعية العدد 78 الصفحة 123.
تسعى هذه الدراسة إلى اكتشاف الأدلة التاريخية للطوفان من خلال الاعتماد على الروايات الإخبارية التي تبناها الدوادري في “كتاب كنز الدرر وجامع الغرر” وجاءت هذه الدراسة مقارن ونقد النص، لغرض تفكيكه وإعادة بناءه من جديد، لمعرفة مدى البعد المنطقي فيه واستخراج القيمة الروائية لكتابات الدواداري المتعمقة في أحداث موغلة في القدم؛إذ ابتدأ تاريخه بالإشارة إلى قصة الخلق وتنظيم الكون وحتى عصر المؤلف، امتازت روايات الدواداري بطابعها النموذجي الميال إلى التشذيب والاختصار بشكل يتأقلم مع متبنيات منهجه التاريخي القائم على مبدأ الايجاز، لاعتقاده بأن ذلك سيسرع استيعاب القراء لمادته بأقصر الطرق والوسائل، فكان متبايناً في مادته صعوداً ونزولاً و كان ذلك واضحًا في دراسته للطوفان، أفرز البحث نتائج أسهمت في فك رمزية الأحداث التي ساقها الدواداري التي تمظهر بعضها بمظهر الأسطورة والخيار وغلب على بعضها الآخر عدم الضبط والموضوعية؛ نظراً لبعد زمان ومكان الدواداري من الأحداث التي يرويها.الكلمات المفتاحية:الطوفان؛ الأسطورة؛ الدواداري، كنز الدرر وجامع الغرر؛ التاريخ.
This study seeks to discover the historical evidence of the beneficiaries by relying on the news accounts adopted by Al-Dawadari in “in the book “kanzaldarar & Jamiealgharr” The Flood as a comparative model,criticism of the text for the purpose of deconstruction and reconstruction, in order to become aware of the extent of the logical dimension by extracting the deep narrative value of the writings of Al-Dawadari that appeared in antiquity. Where the author’s history begins with a reference to the story of creation and the organization of the universe and up to the author’s era, Al-Dawadari’s narration is characterized by its exemplary nature, which tends to shorten the text in a manner consistent with the historical method based on the principle of brevity, but he believes that this will speed up the readers’ understanding of the material. in the shortest possible way. And it differs “in its material, up and down,” and that was clear “in his study of the flood, and The search is over results that contribute to deciphering the events presented by al-Dawadari, some of which were manifested by the emergence of legend and choice, while others were dominated by a lack of discipline and objectivity because of “time and place.”
Key words:The flood ; Myth;Al-Dawadari ;kanz aldarar & jamie algharr ;history.
Abu Bakr bin Abdullah bin Aybak Al-Dawadari, who died (737 AH / 1336 AD), is considered one of the historians of Egypt in the Mamluk era, but he did not gain wide fame among the historians of his time. As the historical and men’s sources did not provide sufficient translation and adequate information about the life of Al-Dawadari, he has many works in history and literature, and his book (Kinz Al-Durar and Jami’ Al-Gharar) is considered one of the important books in Islamic history in general, and the history of Egypt and the Mamluk era in particular. His book included nine parts, each part of which deals with the study and treatment of a specific period, and this historical treasure remained hidden for a long time until these nine parts were achieved and published, in the sixties of the last century by a group of European orientalists, and Germans in particular, and researchers The Arabs, and the studies for this book are still few in their first steps and are still craving compared to other historical records, including our attempt, and we believe that it contains intellectual and cultural resources that need to be addressed in the other parts of the book.
The sources of Islamic heritage provided an important material for ancient history in its various dimensions, which affected the motivation of historians towards keeping pace with proposals to accommodate the prevailing ideas and perceptions that together formed a very close picture of strengths and weaknesses. of historical fragments.
Providing readers with a mixture of stereotypes, particularly from ancient Arab history, motivating researchers to explore and deconstruct their internal structure vertically while being “harmonic” in a way that is
consistent with modern scholarly premises in textual criticism and reconstruction. This is evident in the introductions to the philosophical vision rooted in the texts of Al-Dawari in his book “Kinz Al-Daraar and Jami Al-Ghar” in the news of the flood as a model that was subject to a comparative study and criticism.
The legend of the flood
Abu Bakr al-Dawadari (737 AH / 1336 AD) briefly depicted the scene of the flood, when he was talking about Noah bin Lamek bin Mutushaleh bin Akhnokh bin Yared bin Mahlael bin Qainan bin Anoushbin Sheth bin Adam. The main question we ask is, did the Flood happen in a particular place on Earth? Or does it include the whole earth? In other words, was it global? Or did it include the people of Noah only? To answer these questions, we first mention Al-Dawadari’snarration about the flood, and how he answered us about these questions, as he gave a long narration.
Noah continued to call them to God Almighty, and they did increase in arrogance and killed a group of those with him, and at that time he despaired of them, so he ordered the work of the ark, and Noah. He took up the work of astronomy. He carried the rest ofthe creatures, and the water flooded the earth.
The most important notes on Al-Dawadari’s novel:
Al-Dawadari did not specify the area of the flood, although it appears from the context of his words when he stated: The flood did not reach China or India that he does not acknowledge its universality, but rather took it to a wide geographical area outside the borders of modern Iraq, where he said: “God Exalted be raised the al-Bayt al-Ma’moreduring the days of the flood” .Al-Dawadari gave a place for the ship to dock on Jabal Al-Judi, which he emphasized that it was within the borders of Iraq in Mosul. Rather, he specified the location with great accuracy, saying: “Between it and the Tigris is eight leagues”It appears that Al-Dawadari was confident that the flood had begun and ended in Iraq, where he said: Al-Judi is the one on whom the ark was anchored, and beneath it is a village called Eighty, in which Noah lodged. The first village built on the face of the earth was named after the flood, and it is one of the works of Mosul، Al-Dawari’s last opinion on the (Iraqi Flood) was supported by most of the commentators and historians, and they went to what Al-Dawarimentioned that the ship settled on Jabal Al-Judi in Mosul While Ibn Battuta mentioned in the atmosphere of his trip to Iraq, that in Kufa is a small mosque, which is the place from which the Tannour escaped during the flood of Noah, and in its back outside the mosque there is a house they claim is Noah’s house, it is said that it is the site of the construction of Noah’s Ark And in a hadith on the authority of Imam Jaafar bin Muhammad al-Sadiq: that the enlightenment was in the country of Kufa ,so he said: “Al-Judi is the mountain on which Noah’s ark rested while he was in the Euphrates”Kufa It is clear to us that Al-Judi is not as Al-Dawadari went to, who confirmed that it is part of the land of Mosul, with a large number of historians.
Al-Dawadari did not specify the period in which the flood occurred – Dr. Osama Al-Taieconcluded based on the historical data and conclusions he mentioned in his book, that the flood occurred in (6000 BC. M) that this year represents a stage called (the prehistoric era) within the era The mineral stone in a historical role known as (Hassuna House) (6000 _ 5250 BC).
Texts about the flood were found in the recorded records of ancient Iraq, from the Sumerian:It is one of the oldest legends, and it came on a Sumerian tablet, it was not in sound condition, the first thirty-seven lines were broken, it was discovered in the city of Nefer (Nippur) by the researcher Arno Poebel “in 1914 AD, its summary: that the gods decided The annihilation of mankind with the events of the devastating flood … Then the god Enki – the god of water and the god of wisdom – disclosed the secret of the flood to “Ziusudra”, a pious man who fears the gods and devote himself to serving them in humility and reverence. He was told by “Enki” is what the gods planned in their assembly, that the assembly of the gods ordered to send the flood and ordered him to build a large ship and take in it a seed of every living thing so that life would continue after the flood, the whole storm came at once, and with it the torrents of the flood rushed Over the face of the earth for seven days and nights, torrents engulfed the land, and storms pushed the giant boat over the great waters, and the land was sprinkling water, the flood that destroyed the country ended, King Ziusudra prostrated before (Utu) and the king sacrificed a bull and a Shah, and BabylonianThis legend depicts the mechanism by which hurricanes and storms began, and the flood lasted for six days, and the rest of the human race caused its effects, except for (Utnapishtim) and those with him, then the sea calmed down and the storm subsided, then the ship landed on Mount Nasir, which prevented it from moving after a week, and from there Utnapishtim released a dove to search for land, but it quickly returned to him. He returns the ball with a swallow, but also returns without finding land, and the third time he released a crow that flies into the sky without returning, Utnapishtim concludes that he found dry land and that the water receded, then Utnapishtim released all the passengers of the ship, and (Enlil) rewarded him with immortality, he and his wife.
Dr. TahaBaqirmentioned: “The many similarities between the events of the flood mentioned in the Torah – which most historians, including al-Dawadari, referred to” And the flood mentioned in the exploits of some ancient nations, there is no doubt that it goes back to one event, which is the flood that the stories of ancient Iraq mentioned as the place of that event” .
Many ancient peoples have legends about the Flood. The outlines of the Sumerian Flood myth begin and the Babylonians And the Torah in Genesis And moved with the Phoenician ships to Greece, the Greek myth tells us that the chief of the gods “Zeus or Jupiter” (Lord of Heaven and Earth) He grumbled about the scenes of blood shed among humans, so he decided to destroy the earth, as a rainstorm fell on the ground that continued in its violence for a long time, and the continuous heavy rain. The rain flooded the plains, hills, and forests, and none of the men was ready, except for Deucalion and his wife, Pyrha . As they did not participate in the crimes that were committed and lived in peace and integrity, they were warned before the flood, and when the waters began to burst, Deucalion had to draw from his shelter an ark prepared for such a flood, and called his wife, and the waters stopped after 9 days, and the couple felt That is by loneliness, so Hermes, the messenger of the gods, told them to go to a valley containing large amounts of rocks and to throw stones with their hands, so that they would turn into human beings.
As for the end of the flood, Al-Dawadaridepicted it for us in accordance with the Iraqi legends and the Torah, as he mentioned: “God the Most High sent a good wind to dry the earth” and agrees with what came in the Iraqi legends: “Then the sea calmed down and the storm subsided”.
Al-Dawadari said: “Then Noah sent the crow to look and did not return to it… Then he sent the dove and it returned to him, and its legs had been dyed with mud… .. So it returned to him with olive leaf green in its beak, and it was said: It was From the grass of the earth” This Al-Dawadarinovel suggests to us the extent to which the legend of the flood was influenced by historians with the legends of ancient civilizations, as it came in the Babylonian legend of the flood, Utnapishtimreleased a dove to search for land, but it soon returns to him, he returns the ball with A swallow, but it also returns without finding land, and the third time it releases a crow that flies in the sky without returning, Utnapishtim infers that it has found land and that the waters have receded.
Result and Discussions
- This study came from reading and deconstructing the sayings of Al-Dawadari in his book specialized in this study and a special part of it in the flood and comparing them with the myths of ancient civilizations.
- Taking the sample that was used to review the foundations and standards adopted by Al-Dawari in the archive of topics, then put forward ideas and visions within his texts that need careful review. That is why the title of this research: The Legend of the Flood in Akhbar al-Dawadari (737 AH / 1336 AD) – a comparative reading
- According to these data, the legend of the flood has Sumerian roots, and passed to the Babylonians, then the Canaanites and from there to the Hebrews, and then became accessible to historians. ancient peoples.
- One flood occurred, but other civilizations took it, and changed the name of the hero ofthe flood, to suit the circumstances.
- The use of civilizations that dealt with the myth of the Flood as a means to the extinction of the human race also shows us that the surviving person, who is responsible for building life on Earth after the Flood, is a local and symbolic hero for these peoples, as the name “Noah” is the character who survived. From the flood in the literature of peoples and religions, and it is known to historians as well as in the Torah, while in the Epic of Gilgamesh the hero was Ziusudra and others, and according to these legends, the hero had previous knowledge of a natural disaster, and that this disaster needs a special means of salvation.
- The research resulted in results that contribute to deciphering the events presented by al-Dawwari, some of which were manifested in the emergence of the legend, while others prevailed lack of discipline and objectivity due to “time and place.”
- Abu Bakr bin Abdullah bin Aybak Al-Dawadari (737 AH / 1336 AD) is considered one of the historians of the Mamluk era in Egypt, but he did not gain wide fame among the historians of his time, and from the notes on everyone who translated for him, their participation in not providing accurate information about year of his birth, and therefore some of them do not hesitate to openly admit their inability to provide useful information in this
- The book (kanzaldarar &Jamiealgharr) is one of the important books in history. His book included nine parts, each part of whichisconcerned with studying and dealing with a specific period. This historical treasure remained hidden for a long time until these nine parts were achieved and published, in the sixties of the twentieth century. The past was developed by a group of European orientalists, and Germans in particular, and Arab researchers, and the studies for this book are still few in their
first steps and still afew compared to other historical blogs, including our attempt, and we believe that it contains intellectual and cultural resources that need to Treatment in other parts of the book .
- Flood myths are common across a wide range of cultures, extending back into Bronze Age and Neolithic prehistory. These accounts depict a flood, sometimes global in scale, usually sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution.
- often in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primaeval waters which appear in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths also contain a culture hero, who ”represents the human craving for life”.
- Abu Jaafar ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi, Kitab al-Amali, Iraq, 1965, vol 2.
- Al-Dawadari, kanzaldarar&Jamiealgharr, The first edition, Issa Al-Babi Al-Halabi Press, Cairo, , V. 2.
- Al-Kulayni Muhammed bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, Iraq, Iraq, 1969, vol. 8 .
- Al-SawahFiras, The First Adventure of the Mind, Dar al-Kalima, Damascus, 1988 .
- Stephanie Daly, Myths from Mesopotamia, Bissan, Beirut, 1997 AD
- Hook, Myths in Mesopotamia, General Organization for Press and Printing, Baghdad, 1968.
- Ibn Battuta, The Journey of Ibn Battuta, Cairo, 1417 AH.
- James Baldwin, Stories of Greek Mythology, 2011.
- JurjiZaidan, Summary of the History of Greece, Egypt, 2012.
- Khalil Saeed, Landmarks of Mesopotamia Civilization, Baghdad , 1984 AD .
- Khazal Al-Majidi, Maton Sumer , Dar Al-Ahliyyah, Amman, 1998 AD .
- Kramer, from the Sumer tablets,Al-Muthanna office, Baghdad
- NaelHanoun, The Epic of Gilgamesh, Autumn office, Damascus 2006.
- Osama Al-Tai, The Book of Hisham bin Muhammad Al-Kalbi and His Thought, Iraq, 2013 .
- Samuel Henry Hooke, Myths in Mesopotamia, Baghdad, 1968.
- Samuel Noah Kramer, A Book of Sumer Tablets, B Cairo, 1965.
- TahaBaqer, Introduction to the Literature of Ancient Iraq, Baghdad, 1976.
- TahaBaqer, The Gilgamesh Epic, Baghdad, Directorate of General Culture, Baghdad, 1971 AD .
– Khazal Al-Majidi, Maton Sumer, p. 187-191; Kramer, from the Sumer tablets, p. 251_261; Hook, Myths in Mesopotamia, pp. 18-20; Khalil Saeed, Landmarks of Mesopotamia Civilization, p. 168.
– Samuel Henry Hooke, Myths in Mesopotamia, Baghdad, 1968, p. 37.
-Al-Sawah, Firas, The First Adventure of the Mind, p. 161; Stephanie Daly, Myths from Mesopotamia, p. 137-149.
– TahaBaqer, Introduction to the Literature of Ancient Iraq, Baghdad, 1976, p. 173.
– JurjiZaidan, Summary of the History of Greece, Egypt, 2012, p. 18.
-James Baldwin, Stories of Greek Mythology, 2011, pp. 74-78.
– Al-Dawadari ,part 2, p 71
-TahaBaqer, The Gilgamesh Epic, Baghdad, 2008, p. 23.
– Al-Dawadari , part 2, p 77 .
– Nael, The Epic of Gilgamesh, p. 225.